Polityka klimatyczno-energetyczna w krajach Grupy Wyszehradzkiej
W ramach projektu współfinansowanego z Grantu Wyszehradzkiego (z Międzynarodowego Funduszu Wyszehradzkiego) eksperci z Polski, Czech, Słowacji i Węgier przygotowali mini raporty, w których opisali politykę klimatyczno-energetyczną w swoich krajach, a także analizę zasobów ludzkich w sektorze węglowo-energetycznym i ich potencjalne wykorzystanie w innych sektorach oraz jak przeprowadzić sprawiedliwą transformację regionów górniczych.
1) Analiza sektora energetycznego oraz realizacji polityki klimatycznej Polski
Polityka klimatyczna jest obecnie jednym z największych wyzwań dla współczesnego świata. Nie jest ona działaniem wyłącznie związanym z ochroną środowiska, lecz kompleksową strategią, angażującą wszystkie sektory gospodarki, mającą na celu walkę z globalnym ociepleniem. Aby realnie wpłynąć na zatrzymanie wzrostu temperatury do poziomu, który nie będzie negatywnie wpływał na cały ekosystem, potrzebne jest podjęcie szeregu równoległych działania na poziomie globalnym, krajowym i lokalnym. Wraz ze wzrostem średniej temperatury, oznaki zmian klimatu stają się coraz bardziej wyraźne i groźne, zarówno w aspekcie ekonomicznym, środowiskowym, społecznym, jak i politycznym.
W ostatnich latach zagadnienia związane ze zmianami klimatu oraz negatywnymi skutkami tego procesu dyskutowane i analizowane są na całym świecie. W 2015 r. prawie 200 krajów postanowiło zawrzeć światowe porozumienie (Porozumienie Paryskie), którego celem jest walka z globalnym ociepleniem. Dla Polski, której sektor energetyczny oparty jest przede wszystkim na węglu, jest to nie lada wyzwanie. Przemysł wydobywczy jest bardzo silnie popierany i dotowany przez polski rząd, co utrudnia dążenie do spełnienia celów klimatyczno-energetycznych, jakie wyznaczyła Unia Europejska.
Niniejszy raport przedstawia obecną sytuację polskiego sektora energetycznego oraz dotacji i subwencji, jakie stosowane są dla poszczególnych źródeł energii. W dalszej części analizowana jest polityka klimatyczno-energetyczną prowadzona przez Polskę w ostatnich latach, a także plany kraju w kontekście celów klimatycznych Unii Europejskiej w perspektywie 2020, 2030 i 2050.
2) Zasoby ludzkie sektora węglowo energetycznego w Polsce. Analiza sytuacji obecnej, trendów oraz perspektyw na przyszłość
Celem opracowania było scharakteryzowanie kapitału ludzkiego zatrudnionego w sektorze weglowo energetycznym w Polsce oraz analiza alternatywnych możliwości zagospodarowania zasobów pracy w regionach w ktorych wydobywa się i przetwarza węgiel. Zaproponowano zmiany i sugestie, które umożliwią osiągnięcie celów środowiskowych i klimatycznych, głównie przez rozwój sektora rozproszonej energii odnawialnej.
1) CLIMATE POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
The Czech Republic is industrial country with long history of machinery factories but also steelworks or coal and especially lignite mining. Since the beginning of century country belongs to Top 10 of world electricity exporters. Despite industrial decline in 1990‘s the Czech Republic has very high per capita GHG emissions, actually fourth highest between EU member states.
Czech climate protection policy was prepared by Ministry of Environment and approved by government in 2017. However, it is still very difficult to put particular measures into the practice. Both industrial lobby and unions have very strong influence on decision makers and argue with decline of competitiveness and social impacts. Real implementation of climate protection measures largely depends on public acceptance.
2) Just Transition in Czech Republic
There are three regions in Czech republic where coal is mined. Two regions, placed in the Northwest host several open pit mines with lignit. Contrary, Moravskoslezský region is known for underground mining of black coal. Both areas are known for very bad environmental and social conditions with number of problems following the releasing miners from work.
At this moment, mining and energy sectors employ 30 000 people at the most. It is expected that mines and related power plants will be closing continuously in following approx. 20 years. The closure of one mine is supposed to generate not more than 1 500 workers which is for example over 10 percent of current state of unemployment in Ústecky region. The amount of workers employed in the renewable industry. Despite the fact there are plans for expansion renewables on the place of former mines, it is not considered as the industry which should replace coal related industries. All the region desire broader transformation. In matter of economic transportation, it is needed to bring more various industries of the third sector and especially services and SMEs. Except of that, the key-areas of transformation are education, social situation and environment.
Czech republic is the only CEE country which has a governmental strategy for transformation strategy of its coal regions. It is probably the most effective way how to support the transformation at this moment. To ensure its positive impacts public participation needs to be at the core of the strategy. It is also needed to identify and overcome the barriers of the poor ability of the regions to receive financing from EU funds and other sources.
1) Climate and Energy policy in Slovakia
The main aim of The Paris Agreement, which entered into force in November 2016, is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping the global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius. The Agreement brings all nations into a common cause and all antions have to redifine its climate and energy policies and strategies in order to meet this goal.
Slovakia is one of the most energy-intensive economies within the EU member states, having various high-carbon manufactoring sectors, therefore protecting the industry is often preffered by the government over low-carbon goals. The mining industry has a very strong political support through coal subsidies and there is a rather low political support of renewable energy. Slovakia has a high share of nuclear energy, but also hydropower in its energy mix, which has a very high share within the renewable energy mix. Renewable energy targtets are therefore accomplished, but a further expansion of other renewable energy sources and technologies would be welcome. A result would be a more decarbonized and decentralized energy market, which could lead to lower electricity bills, since Slovakia has one of the highest prices within the EU member states.
This report analyses the energy and climate policy in Slovakia. In the first section, there is a general overview of the energy market in Slovakia, with special regards to renewable energy profiles. The second part focuses on climate and energy policy of Slovakia, giving an overview of the main strategic documents which influence the climate and energy targets. We analyzed the priorities of these policies and further objectives and plans until the years 2020-2050, which arise from international commitments of Slovakia being a member of the EU and other international organizations.
2) Coal mining sector transition in Slovakia
In the past years the European union has been working towards reducing its carbon emissions. Since coal is considered the most carbon-intensive energy fuel within the EUs energy mix, declining coal usage has already led to mine closures in a number of countries. There are however currently around 40 regions in the EU where coal is mined. In the "Clean Energy for All Europeans" Communication issued on 30th November 2016, the European Commission stated: "we will examine how to better support the transition in coal and carbon-intensive regions. To this end, it will work in partnership with the actors of these regions, provide guidance, in particular for the access to and use of available funds and programmes, and encourage exchange of good practices, including discussions on industrial roadmaps and re-skilling needs, through targeted platforms."1
Currently, pilot projects on how coal minig regions can best modernise their economies are underway in three regions: Silesia (Poland), Western Macedonia (Greece), and Trencin (Slovakia). Project initiatives may include building geothermal and hydro energy plants in former coal mines, investing in e-mobility, digitalisation and data centres, creating innovation parks, forming local energy communities, and developing tourism and agricultural activities. Projects may be eligible for existing EU funding.2
The aim of this report is to characterize the coal sector labor market in Slovakia and to analyze the potential for transferring these human resources to other sectors. We will analyze the districts of Partizánske and Prievidza located in the Slovak administrative region of Trenčín. This territory is called the Upper Nitra, with an area of 1,261 km2 and the population of about 184,000 inhabitants. It is an economically developed region of Slovakia with a large density of industrial sector and it is one of the coal mining regions within the EU, which are expected to be closed in the upcoming years.
As Maroš Šefčovič (Slovak Commisioner to the EU, responsible for the Energy Union) declared, the most responsible approach is to offer an alternative to coal regions, a new future.
1) ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE-ENERGY POLICIES & IMPLEMENTATION IN HUNGARY
Hungary is poor in fossil energy sources: Oil and natural gas production provides only 10% and 20-25% of the domestic demand, respectively1; the only significant source is low quality lignite. There are also notable, but (non-utilized) non-conventional natural gas sources. The mining of coal has ceased, lignite mining produces around 9 million tonnes/year (⅔ of the domestic coal consumption), but the government is considering a total coal exit by 2030.2 The country has uranium mines which are currently not financially viable.
Among renewables, biomass is the largest renewable energy source (mainly as solid biomass, accounting for 80% of primary renewable consumption). Hungary has one of the best geothermal resources in the EU, providing hot water - mainly used in spas, usually without heat recovery. There is also some geothermal energy use for heat in the residential sector and in agriculture. Conditions for solar energy are also favourable in Hungary, with its expansion currently expanding rapidly.
The overall wind energy potential is not significant, although certain regions have a reasonable amount of wind potential. The rate of hydropower utilisation has remained at a low but stable level in the last decades. Beyond some small-scale hydro development, the potential use of large rivers for hydropower generation remains politically very controversial. (...)
2) ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CAPITAL AND LABOUR MARKET IN THE COAL & HEAVY INDUSTRY SECTOR AND SHIFTING POTENTIAL TO ALTERNATIVE SECTORS IN HUNGARY FOCUSING ON BAZ COUNTY
There is an increasing need during both planning and decision-making for exploring the current state of affairs regarding the demand and supply on the labour market. Even though there are current requirements in employment, most cases imply longer-term ones.1 The present study examines the characteristics of the labour market, focusing on Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén (BAZ) county and the potential of human resources in mining and heavy industry, or whether this kind of employment group can be shifted to alternative sectors as well. Changing economic factors always contribute to the so called progressive and regressive sectors; that is, sectors that are characterized by a more differentiated and more dynamic growth than the average, or rather by regression.2
The change of regime in 1990 brought the most significant change in Hungary’s economic structure, as in the previous years and the ones preceding 1990 mines were continuously being closed and the heavy industry sectors gradually disappeared (or were liquidated).
Problems related to the closures of mines have been present throughout Europe since the 1960s, and the changes in coal and ore mining have been particularly noticeable. The depletion of mines was among the reasons for the abolition of production as much as the changes in the economic judgment of the mined raw material, or the increase in the costs of production beyond an acceptable degree (Siskáné Szilasi, B. 2005). The abandoned mines, the former mining facilities, buildings and industrial sites have raised both environmental and socio-economic problems.